“As to those who have rejected (Allah), and would keep (men) back from the Way of Allah, and from the Sacred Mosque, which We have made (open) to (all) men – the residents and the visitors are equal – and any whose purpose therein is profanity or wrong-do- ing – We will cause them to taste a most Grievous Penalty” (Surah al-Hajj, 22:25).
The Kaaba or baytullâh (House of God) is the first place of worship of its kind that was built for mankind.
Muslims from all over the world come to this holy place every year to perform the Hajj, one of the “Five Pillars” of Islam. Many of them also visit Medina about 400 km north of Mecca, where the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) spent many years of his life and passed away in 632 c.e.
The rituals of the Hajj, like entering into Ihrâm, the sojourn on the plains of Arafat and Muzdalifa, the Tawâf, and the symbolic stoning of the devil, are of outstanding importance.
The believers circumambulate the Kaaba like planets revolving around the sun, their hearts filled with joy and thankfulness. They run back and forth between the hills of al-Marwa and as-Safâ and finally visit the grave of their beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Medina.
And their joy is justified: Allah (exalted is He) has bestowed countless blessings on them. They strive for the pleasure of their Lord, who will forgive them their sins and reward, even their slightest effort of worshipping, a hundred thousand fold.
The Hajj is more important than any other gathering of men in the world. For centuries, its outer form has remained unchanged. Thus, the Hajj is a ceaseless Ibâda (act of worship).
The prospective Hajji makes his intention to perform the pilgrimage for the sake of Allah (exalted is He) and enters into Ihrâm. By this, he embarks upon Jihâd against his ego (nafs) until he has fully accomplished all of his duties. Every step he takes will be rewarded invaluably.
The Hajj teaches the believer humbleness, patience, and submission. He learns to give and love only for the sake of Allah (exalted is He). In this sense, the Hajj is an on-going endeavour, from which the believer returns inwardly purified.
The words Hajj and Jihâd stem from the same Arabic root, which carries the meaning of “making the intention to do great deeds”. Thus, the true meaning of the Hajj is to remain patient and to strive until the last moment.
In this book, we will look in detail at every condition and obligation of the Hajj, as well as the meaning in the light of the Tawâf and the Sunnah.
And success is with Allah, the Almighty!
THE HAJJ IN THE QUR’AN AND THE PROPHETIC TRADITION (HADITH)
Many verses in the Qur’an stress the importance of the Hajj. Its parts and stages are described in Surah Al-Hajj, which was revealed in Medina.
In one of its verses, Allah (exalted is He) says:
“As to those who have rejected (Allah), and would keep (men) back from the Way of Allah, and from the Sacred Mosque, which We have made (open) to (all) men – the residents and the visitors are equal – and any whose purpose therein is profanity or wrong-do- ing – We will cause them to taste a most Grievous Penalty” (Surah al-Hajj, 22:25).
In this and similar verse of Surah Al-Hajj, Allah (exalted is He) tells us about the Kaaba as the first place of prayer on earth and a sacred centre of worship for all those who believe in Allah (exalted is He). No one is authorized to prevent the believers from worshiping at the Kaaba and performing the Tawâf. Their attempt to do so was the rea- son for the Quraish’s defeat. Allah (exalted is He) will pun-
ish such people for their transgression in the Hereafter, because the Kaaba is His house. To make the Masjîd al-Harâm inaccessible to the believers, in any way whatsoever, is regarded a major sin.
Allah (exalted is He) tells us about the origins of the Kaaba:
“Behold! We gave the site, of the (Sacred) House, to Abraham (saying): „Do not associate anything (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who walk around it, stand up, bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer). And proclaim the Pil- grimage among men: they will come to you on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, lean (on ac- count of journeys through deep and distant moun- tain highways); That they may witness the benefits (provided) for them, and celebrate the name of Allah, through the appointed Days, over the cattle which He has provided for them (for sacrifice): then eat thereof and feed the distressed and the needy. Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them, perform their vows, and (again) circumam- bulate the Ancient House. Such (is the Pilgrimage): whoever honours the sacred rites of Allah, for him it is good in the Sight of his Lord. Lawful to you (for food in Pilgrimage) are cattle, except those men- tioned to you (as exception): but shun the abomina- tion of idols, and shun the word that is false”. (Surah al-Hajj, 22: 26-30).
The Kaaba was built by Ibrâhîm (a), and it was he who taught mankind the ritual of the pilgrimage. But the Kaaba is far more than just a place of worship. It is a testimony to the Oneness of Allah (exalted is He).
The Kaaba has to be kept neatly clean, so that the believers can circumambulate Allah’s house in complete tranquillity of heart. Here, Muslims of all nations and ethnic groups have the opportunity to meet and get to know each other. Such encounters do not only strengthen economic and cultural cooperation but also promote solidarity between different members of the Muslim Ummah.
Above all, the Hajj purifies the Muslims of their sins and enhances their spiritual development until they finally un- derstand the deeper meaning of the famous saying: “Die before you die”.
These are the gifts that Allah (exalted is He) bestows upon the believers during their Hajj. And there are many other merits to be acquired:
“For Hajj the months are well known. If anyone un- dertakes that duty therein, let there be no obscen- ity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj. And whatever good you do, (be certain that) Allah knows it. And take provision (with you) for the journey, but the best of provisions is right conduct. So fear Me, O you who are wise” (Surah al-Baqarah, 2:197).
The Hajj, performed within the prescribed time, is a form of spiritual education. Any kind of disorder and disqui- et must be avoided. The believer, who has entered into Ihrâm, practices self-control and patience, and learns to pardon others.
The Hajj also invites us to deeply reflect upon Allah’s (exalted is He) creation. This aspect is also made clear in the prophet- ic Hadith, where those, who perform the Hajj, in accordance with its true meaning, are promised a great reward.
In one Hadith, narrated by Bukharî, Muslim, Tirmidhi and others, the Prophet (PBUH) says:
“Whoever performs Hajj and abstains from commit- ting sins and revolting against Allah, will return pu- rified from all sins. He is as pure as he was on the day his mother bore him – except from the rights he owes to other creatures of Allah” (Riyadh as-Saali- heen, II, p. 521).
In another Hadith, the Prophet (PBUH) says:
“Whoever sets out for Hajj should hasten and not postpone it, for in the course of time he may fall sick or find no opportunity to travel or other needs may occur that will make it impossible for him to perform the Hajj” (Abû Dâwûd, Manâsik, 5)
And finally: “The reward for an accepted Hajj is noth- ing other than Paradise.” (Bukhari, Umrah, 1)
After their arrival in Mecca, the pilgrims take another ritual bath. Full of joy and excitement, they head to the Kaaba, reciting the Talbiyya, Takbîr, Tahlîl, and invoking Salawât upon the Prophet (PBUH). Upon reaching the gates of the Masjid al-Harâm, they stop and enter in veneration, tran- quillity, and respect.
Upon looking at the Kaaba, one chants the Takbîr and the Tahlîl three times each. Then, one can make a personal supplication, like the following, to express thankfulness for Allah’s (exalted is He) blessings:
“O Allah, increase the dignity, veneration, and glory of this blessed house. O my Lord! Those, who hold it in high regard and those, who perform the Hajj und Umrah in reverence, increase them in honour and elevate their ranks.”
Without further delay, the pilgrims walk to the Black Stone, which marks the starting point for the Tawâf. Those, who want to perform Hajj at-Tamattu or Hajj al-Kirân, make the intention to perform the Tawâf al-Umrah. Those, who want to perform Hajj al-Ifrâd, make the intention to per- form Tawâf al-Kudûm.
THE NIYYAH FOR THE TAWÂF AL-UMRAH
The intention is made by saying the following phrase: “O Allah, to gain your good pleasure, I will perform the seven Ashwat of the Tawâf al-Umrah. Make it easy for me and ac- cept it from me.”
Likewise, the intention for Tawâf al-Kudûm is made as fol- lows:
“O Allah, to gain your good pleasure, I will perform the seven Ashwat of the Tawâf al-Kudûm. Make it easy for me and ac- cept it from me.”
Before beginning the Tawâf, it is recommended to kiss the Black Stone. If this is impossible due to dense crowds, one greets it from a distance by raising the hand and say- ing: Bismillâhi Allâhu akbar! Allâhu akbar wa lillâhil hamd (In the name of Allah! Allah is greater! Allah is greater, all praise belongs to Him).
This greeting is called “Istilâm”. It has to be repeated at the end of every circuit. The Rukn al-Yamanî, the Yemeni Corner, is also greeted. In every shawt, the following sup- plication is made while walking from the Yemeni Corner towards the Black Stone:
“O our Lord, grant us the best in this life and the best in the next life, and protect us from the punishment of the Fire.”
The Tawâf is performed counter clockwise, the Kaaba is therefore always on the left. Each circuit is called a “shawt”. The Tawâf has seven ashwat.
One should pay attention not to walk around the Hatim, a small 1 meter high arched wall, because it is considered part of the Kaaba.
It is Sunnah to perform “Iztibâ” and “Ramal” during the first three circuits of every Tawâf, which is followed by the Sa’i.
“Iztibâ” means to pass the upper Ihrâm cloth beneath the right arm and over the left shoulder, leaving the right shoulder uncovered.
“Ramal” means to walk briskly, making short steps and lifting the legs. This is done only by men. It is narrated by the companions that the polytheists of Mecca accused the Prophet (PBUH) of weakness, when he was perform- ing the Tawâf. The Prophet (PBUH) replied: “Anyone, who shows strength towards the polytheists today, shall ex- perience Allah’s mercy” (Ahmad bin Hanbal I, 305-306). Pilgrims, who practice the Ramal, stress the honour and strength of Islam in the face of imaginary opponents.
Once the Tawâf is completed, the pilgrims offer a prayer of two Rak’at behind the Makâm Ibrahim. If there is not enough room, they can pray anywhere else in the proxim- ity of the Kaaba. Subsequently, they can make supplica- tions of their choice.
The Tawâf prayer is wajîb, provided that the karahat time has not begun (during which offering prayers is forbidden).
It is recommended to recite Surah al-Kafirûn after the Fa- tiha in the first Raka of the Tawâf prayer, and Surah Ikhlâs in the second.
Everyone praying close to the Kaaba should look at it as long as this does not disturb his concentration. Whoever prays in a place, where he cannot see the Kaaba, should look at the place of prostration instead.
If possible, one should approach the Multazam between the door of the Kaaba and the Black Stone to supplicate to Allah again.
The merits of supplicating at the Multazam are mentioned in a Hadith narrated by Daylamî (4/94). The Prophet (PBUH) said:
“There is no one who supplicates at the Multazam without his supplication being accepted.”
CONDITIONS OF THE VALIDITY OF THE TAWÂF
1) The Tawâf has to be performed inside the Haram ash- Sharîf
2) It is necessary to perform at least four circuits. A Kaf- fara is due for each missing circuit.
3) One must begin the Tawâf at the Black Stone, other- wise it is invalid.
4) Each Tawâf during the Hajj has to be performed within its prescribed time.
There are three forms of Tawâf: The Tawâf al-Kudûm, the Tawâf of Visiting and the Farewell Tawâf. Additionally, there are the Tawâf al-Umrah, Nazîr Tawâf, and Nafîla Tawaf.
The Tawâf al-Kudûm is performed by all pilgrims after their arrival in Mecca and can be done until the end of the Waqfa on Arafat. It is Sunnah for those, who want to perform Hajj al-Ifrâd and Hajj al-Kirân, but not for those who have made an intention to perform Hajj at-Tamattu.
Those, who want to perform Hajj al-Ifrâd, must perform the Tawâf al-Kudûm right after their arrival in Mecca. All pilgrims performing Hajj al-Kirân perform the Tawâf
al-Umrah first and postpone the Tawâf al-Kudûm until they have completed the Sa’i.
When there is no Sa’i after the Tawâf al-Kudûm, Iztibâ and Ramal are not required. However, performing the Sa’i after the obligatory Tawâf is recommended for pilgrims from outside the Mîqât area.
TAWÂF OF VISITING
This form of Tawâf can be performed after the Waqfa of Arafat. It is one of the two pillars of the Hajj and compul- sory for every pilgrim.
It is essential to perform the Tawâf of Visiting within the first three days of ‘Id al-Adha, beginning at dawn of 10th Zulhijja, after one has made the intention to do so. Any un- justified delay requires the sacrifice of a sheep or a goat.
Menstruating women can make up for this Tawâf after they become ritually clean again. In this case, no penalty is due. However, the Tawâf has to be performed.
It is impossible to name a representative to perform only the Tawâf of Visiting. This Tawâf marks the end of the Hajj.
THE FAREWELL TAWÂF
The Farewell Tawâf is obligatory (wajîb) on every pilgrim from outside the Mîqât area. It is performed after stoning the devil in Mina and before leaving Mecca.
Every voluntary Tawâf after the Tawâf of Visiting counts
as the Farewell Tawâf. It is not necessary to make a par- ticular intention to perform the Farewell Tawâf.
The obligation of the Farewell Tawâf is waived for a men- struating woman and she does not have to pay a Kaffara.
THE TAWÂF AL-UMRAH
The Tawâf al-Umrah is only performed by pilgrims, who want to make the Umrah or Hajj al-Tamattu. The same ap- plies to those, who want to perform Hajj al-Kirân. In these cases, the Umrah Tawâf is performed right after their ar- rival in Mecca, as both forms of Hajj require the Sa’i to be performed immediately after the Tawâf; Iztibâr and Ra- mal have to be done in the first three circuits.
THE TAWÂF AN-NAZÎR
This is wajîb for someone, who has made an oath to sacri- fice. When a specific time was determined for the sacrifice, the pilgrim has to adhere to this. After the Tawâf an-Nazîr, no Sa’i is necessary.
This Tawâf is performed by people, who stay in Mecca for a longer term and visit the Kaaba from time to time. No subsequent Sa’i is necessary.
It is more meritorious for pilgrims, who come from out- side the Mîqât area, to perform a Nâfila-Tawâf instead of the Nâfila prayers and perhaps even more than a Nâ- fila Umrah.
Many pilgrims are not aware of this and try to perform the Umrah. However, it is more meritorious to focus on the Nâfila-Tawâf after the Umrah than wasting time by going to the Masjîd al-Umrah again and again.
OBLIGATORY (WAJÎB) DUTIES OF THE TAWÂF
1) Beginning the Tawâf at the Black Stone.
2) Direction counter-clockwise, the Kaaba is always on the left.
3) Performing the Tawâf on foot, except when having im- pediments like sickness or physical infirmity.
4) Taking ablution or (if necessary) a ritual bath. 5) Covering one’s ‘Awrah.
6) Performing the Tawâf outside of the Hatim. 7) Completing seven circuits.
8) Offering a prayer of two Rak’at after the Tawâf is fin- ished.
THE SUNNAHS OF THE TAWÂF
1) Approaching the Black Stone from the Yemeni Corner.
2) Greeting the Black Stone at the beginning of the Tawâf and at the end of every circuit.
3) Performing seven coherent circuits.
4) Performing Iztibâ and Ramal (men only).
5) Performing the Nâfila-Tawâf as often as possible. 6) Trying to get as close to the Kaaba as possible.
Caution: Women should avoid too dense crowds and any congestion!
AT THE 1st SHAWT
I turn to Allah, whose name is exalted and who is free from any imperfection. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the Greatest. There is no power or force except Allah. Peace and blessings be upon the Prophet Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to whom Allah has been merciful. O Allah, I believe in You I confirm Your book and I follow Your messenger. I kept my promise and came to You. O Allah, I ask You for forgive- ness and well-being in the religion, in this world and in the Hereafter. Oh my Lord, allow me to attain Your Paradise and to stay away from the Fire.”
AT THE 2nd SHAWT
“O Allah, this is Your house and safety is granted by You alone. Mankind are Your creatures. I am the child of one of Your creatures. This is the site of those, who seek refuge from the Hellfire. O Allah, adorn our hearts with love of the faith and let us detest disbe- lief, sinfulness, and rebellion. O Allah, protect us from the torments of the day on which You will resurrect Your Creatures. Make us of those, who will enter Your Paradise without reckoning.”
AT THE 3rd SHAWT
“O Allah, I seek refuge in You from doubt, idol wor- ship, division, hypocrisy, immorality, a bad state, and I ask You to grant me a safe return to my home and my family and children. Oh Allah! Certainly, I desire to attain Your pleasure and Your Paradise. I seek refuge in You from Your wrath and Your Fire. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the torment of the grave and the trials of life and death.”
AT THE 4th SHAWT
“Oh Allah! I ask You to accept this Umrah and my en- deavours. Forgive me my sins and accept my deeds. O Allah, You know what is in our hearts. Guide me from darkness to light. O Allah! I desire to obtain Your mercy, receive Your forgiveness and liberation from all evil. Bestow upon me all good, protect me from the Hellfire, and grant me Your Paradise. Make me frugal and let the good things, that You bestow upon me, exist in abundance. Give me the good of which I do not know, but You do know.”
AT THE 5th SHAWT
“O Allah, shade me under Your throne on a day, when there will be no shade but Your shade and everything but You will have ceased to exist. Let me drink from the pond (al-Hawd) of Muhammad, so that I may nev- er feel thirsty again. Bestow upon me the good that Your Prophet has asked You for. I seek refuge in You from everything that Your Prophet sought refuge from. O Allah, I ask of You Paradise and its gifts. And I desire to speak and do only what brings me nearer to Your Paradise.”
AT THE 6th SHAWT
“Oh Allah, I acknowledge my debts to You and my debt to everything that You have created. O Allah, remove this burden from me. Give me abundance in good things and protect me from evil. O Allah, You are the All-Forgiving. Make me independent of everything but You. Protect me from rebelling against You after I followed You. O Allah, truly, Your house is sublime and You are the Most Noble. Oh Allah, You are the Forbearing One, You are the All-Merciful, the Almighty. Forgive me, because You love to forgive.
AT THE 7th SHAWT
“O Allah! I ask of You a pure faith, sound knowledge, abundant gifts, a humble heart, a tongue that is ever moist with mentioning Your name, lawful income, sincere insights and repentance before death. I ask You to ease the moment of my death, to forgive me my sins, and to show me Your mercy on the Day of Reckoning. I ask of You Your Paradise and I seek ref- uge from Your Hellfire. Your mercy is boundless, O Allah. Verily, You are the Most Noble, Most Compas- sionate. O Allah, increase me in knowledge and let me be amongst the righteous.”
THE SOJOURN (WAQFA) ON ARAFAT
The Waqfa is one of the pillars of the Haj and has certain conditions.
“Waqfa” literarily means to remain or stand still at a place for some time, even very briefly.
The Waqfa on the plain of Arafat is performed on 9th Zul- hijja. The prescribed time, during which the Waqfa has to be performed, begins once the sun has reached its zenith. It ends with the appearance of the dawning light of 10th Zulhijja. If one has sojourned on the plain of Arafat within this time, the Waqfa is considered valid, even if it had only been very brief.
Leaving the plain before sunset on 9th Zulhijja requires the penalty sacrifice of a sheep or a goat, unless one re- turns before dawn.
The Waqfa is part of the farz regulations of the Hajj. Therefore, the Hajj is considered invalid when the Waqfa has not been performed at all.
The second Waqfa at Muzadalifa is part of the wajîbât. The Prophet (PBUH) stressed the importance of the Waq- fa on Arafat with the words: “Hajj is Arafat.”
Arafat is a plain at the foot of Jabal ar-Rahma. It is located outside the Harâm area, but still within the borders of the Hill. The Waqfa is only valid if it is performed on this plain.
On the day of 9th Zulhijja, it is Sunnah to combine the noon- and the afternoon prayers at the time of the noon- prayer. This is called “Jahm at-Takdîm”. Both prayers can be performed separately, but it is more meritorious to pray in congregation in the Namîra-Mosque. The ob- ligatory (farz) parts of the prayer are preceded by recit- ing the Ikâma.
When the two prayers are combined, one has to pray the four Sunnah-Rak’at of the noon-prayer right after the call to prayer (Azân). After the Ikâma, one recites the obligato- ry Rak’at of the noon-prayer, repeats the Ikâma and prays the obligatory parts of the afternoon-prayer.
The other Sunnah prayers are omitted. When performing Jahm at-Takdîm, it is disliked (makrûh) to perform any oth- er voluntary prayer between the two obligatory prayers.
Menstruating, wearing diapers, being in a state of Janaba (ritual impurity that requires ghusl), or a missing ablution does not render the Waqfa invalid.
Even bedridden patients are brought to Arafat to per- form the Waqfa. For the Waqfa to be valid, it is irrelevant whether one is conscious or not.
It is crucial for pilgrims, who perform the Waqfa, to be in a state of Ihrâm. Furthermore, one has to observe the tem- poral and spatial requirements.
On the evening of 9th Zulhijja, one sets out for Muzdalifa. It is wajîb to combine the evening and the night prayer in Jahm at-Ta’hîr (combining two prayers at the time of the later prayer).
After the Ikâma, the obligatory evening prayer is per- formed at once, while the two Sunnah Rak’at are omitted. The obligatory parts of the night prayer are performed af- ter the second Ikâma, followed by two Sunnah Rak’at and the Witr prayer.
Jahm at-Ta’hîr can be performed either in congregation or alone.
It is considered meritorious to perform the Waqfa at the foot of Jabal ar-Rahma (Mountain of Mercy) and to make abundant Du’a. We should humbly implore Allah (exalted is He) to be generous and merciful to us, our parents, and all our brothers and sisters in faith.
The Prophet (PBUH) said:
“There is no day upon which Allah frees more of his servants from the Hellfire than the day of ‘Arafāt. He draws near and then He praises them to the angels, saying: What do these want?” (Muslim, Hajj 1345).
In another Hadith, the Prophet (PBUH) said:
“The best of supplications is the supplication on the day of ‘Arafât and the best which I and the Prophets before me have said (is):
“None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner. To Him belongs sovereignty and all praise and He is over all things omnipotent.” (Imam Mâlik, Muwatta, 1/422, 423).
It is reported by Imam Ahmad that the Prophet (PBUH) said: „There are no days in this world during which wor- ship is more beloved to Allah, Exalted is He, than the first ten days of Zulhijjah.“ (Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 1/343).
On the plain of Arafat, the Prophet (PBUH) received the message that Allah (exalted is He) would be merciful to- wards his Ummah. He had supplicated to Allah (exalted is He), and his Du’a was accepted.
Allah (exalted is He) took pride in the believers performing the Waqfa. He says to the angels: “O my angels, bear wit- ness that I forgave them.”
Eighty-two days after the Farewell pilgrimage, the Proph- et (PBUH) passed away. He observed all Hajj rites includ- ing the Arafat Waqfa during his last pilgrimage. Thus, he, himself, determined its valid form. Moreover, while the Prophet (PBUH) was standing on the plain of Arafat, the third verse of Surah Mâida was revealed:
“[…] This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. […]” (Surah Mâida, 5:3).
THE SPIRITUAL MEANING OF THE WAQFA
Arafat is a vast meeting place. On the same day, even at the same hour, thousands of Muslims stand side by side. The tremendous gathering, unparalleled in the world, is nothing less than a reminder of the Day of Judgment.
The Muslims, who have followed the call of their Lord and accepted the invitation of Ibrâhîm (a), leave the hustle of the world behind. Clad in their Ihrâm garments, which re- mind them of their future shrouds, they have gathered in the searing heat to reconfirm their servitude to Allah (ex- alted is He). For He is al-Qadîr (the Powerful), al-Qahhâr (the Victorious), at-Tawwâb (the one who accepts repent- ance), and ar-Rahîm (the Most-Merciful).
They wait in hope and fear, repenting their sins. They knock, as it were, at the door of their merciful Creator.
This extraordinary day and place bring together the old and the young, the rich and the poor, the sick and the healthy, men and women. They all harbour the same feel- ings, and forge the ties of love and kinship, while fighting the devil as their common eternal enemy. Immeasurable blessings will be bestowed on them who ceaselessly chant the Takbîr and Tahlîl.
THE SUNNAH OF THE WAQFA
1) After the sunrise of 9th Zulhijjah, one sets out from Mina to the plain of Arafat.
2) The congregational noon prayer in the Namîra-Mosque is preceded by a two-part sermon.
3) The noon and the afternoon prayer are combined in Jahm at-Takdîm at the time of the noon prayer.
4) If possible, one should take a ritual bath.
5) It is disliked (makrûh) for pilgrims to fast on this day.
6) If possible, the Waqfa should be performed at the foot of Jabal al-Rahma.
7) One should recite the Talbiyya, Takbîr, Tahlîl, and Salawât upon the Prophet (PBUH) and supplicate to Allah (exalted is He) as much as possible.
8) It is recommended to perform the Waqfa while stand- ing, as this is more meritorious. Nevertheless, it is permis- sible to sit down.
9) One turns towards the Kaaba during the Waqfa.
THE SOJOURN AT MUZDALIFAH
After sunset of 9th Zulhijjah, the pilgrims set out to Muzdal- ifa, an area located between the plain of Arafat and the valley of Mina.
It is Sunnah to spend the night of 9th Zulhijjah at Muzdal- ifa. However, the Waqfa itself is wajîb.
The Muzdalifa Waqfa is valid under the same conditions as the Waqfa on the plain of Arafat (being in a state of Ihrâm, observing its temporal and spatial regulations). It begins with the dawning light of 10th Zulhijjah and ends with sunset of the same day. If one has spent at least a short time at Muzdalifa within this time, the Waqfa is consid- ered complete. It is permissible to sleep during the Waqfa and it is even valid when one was unconscious during its prescribed time. It is not necessary to make an intention prior to the Waqfa. Everyone, who does not perform the Waqfa at all or leaves Muzdalifa before the dawning light without a valid excuse, has to sacrifice a goat or a sheep in atonement.
It is Sunnah to perform the Waqfa at a place called Mash‘ar al-Harâm accompanied by abundant supplications.
Another Sunnah is to hasten the dawn prayer and to stay awake until it becomes light. In the meantime, one should recite the Talbiyya, Takbîr, Tahlîl, and invoke Salawât upon the Prophet (PBUH) as well as make abundant Duâ. One should always try to stay close to the Mash’ar al-Harâm.
Spending the night at Muzdalifa is also Sunnah. One may supplicate to Allah (exalted is He), make Zikr or rest a bit.
It is permissible to collect the stones for the symbolic Stoning of the devil at Muzdalifa. Pilgrims collect about 70 small pebbles the average size of a chickpea. Before taking them to Mina, they have to be washed.
THE SPIRITUAL MEANING OF THE MUZDALIFA WAQFA
According to tradition, Adam (a) and Eve spent the night at Muzdalifa after they had met again on Arafat. The Muzdal- ifa Waqfa has been part of the Hajj rites since the days of Ibrâhîm (a).
The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) himself set out to Muzdalifa immediately after completing his Waqfa on Ara- fat. There, he offered the evening and the night prayer in Jahm at-Ta’hîr”. He spent the night in Zikr, but took some rest as well. After he had offered the dawn prayer, he per- formed the Waqfa on a hill called Kuza. Before sunrise, he set out to Mina.
The stones used in the symbolic stoning of the devil are collected at Muzdalifa. The pilgrim prepares himself like a soldier would prepare for an upcoming battle. Many po- ets and writers were inspired by the atmosphere of the gathering and wrote about the virtues and meaning of this Waqfa.
Night falls upon the pilgrims who have come to spend the night between the hills. They prepare for the great battle of the coming day. The high significance of this Waqfa is already expressed in the word “Muzdalifa”. The one who supplicates at this place, earns the pleasure, benevolence and mercy of Allah (exalted is He).
The word “Mash’ar” stems from the Arabic root “sh-a-r”. If it is used to describe a place, “Mash‘ar means “place of realization”, “feeling”, and “comprehension”. Certainly, it requires great personal effort to truly realize the tremen- dous spiritual significance of Muzdalifa. In this place, it is possible to deeply experience the meaning of life as well as the pleasure of the Divine. In the silence of the night, still under the impression of the Arafat Waqfa, the believ- ers focus on themselves, remember Allah (exalted is He) and pray.
From Muzdalifa, the pilgrims set out for Mina, where they will perform another important act of worship: the sym- bolic stoning of the devil.
Without any delay, they seek out the “Big Devil” (Jamra al-Akbâr) and cast seven pebbles at its marked parts. To perform the Ramyi, one takes a (small) stone in the size of a chickpea between one’s thumb and index finger, then throws it towards the column. This has to be done seven times in succession. Upon every throw, one says:
„Bismillâhi Allâhu akbar! Ragman lisch-Schaytâni wa hiz- bihî.“
“In the name of Allah. Allah is greater. Despite the devil and his followers.”
Each stone has to fall into a marked area framed by con- crete. Otherwise, one throws another stone.
During the symbolic stoning, it is desirable to place one- self so that Mina is on the right and Mecca on the left. It is disliked to hurl more than seven stones, but throwing fewer requires a monetary donation. Throwing all seven stones at a time counts as one throw. Therefore, it is nec- essary to throw them one by one, carefully counting each stone.
N.B.: The stones have to be thrown, not put on the col- umn by hand. Otherwise, the act of worship is not valid.
It is Sunnah to perform the stoning of the ‘Big Devil’ on the forenoon of 10th Zulhijjah. It is also permissible to per- form it in the afternoon before sunset. After sunset, it is still possible, but disliked.
Pilgrims must be careful not to confuse the columns, as stoning anything other than the ‘Big Devil’ first requires the sacrifice of a sheep or a goat in atonement. If the ston- ing is resumed at the same day, this ruling applies as well.
The Talbiyya is no longer recited after the stoning on 10th Zulhijjah. Those, who have made their intention to per- form Hajj at-Tamattu or Hajj al-Kirân, sacrifice an animal now or wait until the sacrifice has been confirmed in their name. In no case do the pilgrims shave their hair until the animals have been sacrificed. Otherwise, they have to slaughter a sheep or a goat for not following the proper order of rites, which is:
1) Stoning the Devils
2) Sacrificing the Hadiy
3) Shaving the head
Those, who made the intention to perform Hajj al-Ifrâd
can shave their head right after the stoning of the devil, as sacrificing is not obligatory upon them.
If possible, the pilgrims, who have now left the state of Ihrâm, should return to Mecca on the same day to per- form the Tawâf of Visiting. Thus, their Hajj is complete. Everyone, who has not done so before, should also per- form the Sa’i.
The Tawâf of Visiting is due within the first three days of ‘Id al-Adha. After having completed this obligatory act of worship, the pilgrims return to Mina and spend the rest of ‘Id there. On the third day of ‘Id, each devil is stoned again, beginning with the smallest. The pilgrims may now leave Mina. It is also permissible to stay provided that the stoning is repeated once again on 14th Zulhijjah.
Those, who cannot perform the stoning due to old age and/or sickness, should name a representative. Any failure in doing so requires the sacrifice of an animal in atonement. Everyone, who is physically able, must per- form the stoning personally; it is impermissible for him to name a representative.
The following points have to be observed:
• Only clean, hazelnut-sized pebbles should be thrown. It is not allowed to throw larger stones, bones, bricks or any other objects.
• It is disliked to use stones that have already been hurled. • It is disliked to split a large stone into seven parts or to cast more than seven stones at one Jamra or to use dirty stones.
• When the stoning is completed, all remaining stones should simply be put on the ground.
THE SPIRITUAL MEANING OF RAMYI
Stoning the devil means to reject any other power ex- cept Allah (exalted is He). It also expresses an attitude that resists all forms of injustice and oppression. Finally, it symbolizes the fight against our own lower self that incites rebellion in us.
The true meaning of the stoning is to destroy the devil’s foothold on earth. This is why one says “In the Name of Allah! Despite the devil and his fellowship.”
By performing the stoning, we break away from our de- sires, our love for this world, and our greed. We renounce everything that we love, be it our money, our children, and, if needs be, even our own life. We strive, just like Ibrâhîm (a), to sacrifice what we love the most.
Everyone has something he desires and cherishes. For some, it is their wealth, their position, their function, for others, it is their knowledge, their rank, and their reputa- tion. They take these desires as false gods and fall prey to the devil. Yet, true faith can only be achieved by sac- rificing our wishes and desires and overcoming the idols within.
The stoning of the devil is performed in remembrance of the prophet Ibrahîm (a). According to a hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), he was just performing Hajj, when the devil approached him at the Jamra al-Ak- bar. Ibrahîm (a) cast seven stones at him, but the devil re-appeared a second and third time. Each time, Ibrahîm threw stones at him, until the devil vanished into the ground.
To sacrifice an animal (hadiy) is obligatory for all pilgrims performing Hajj at-Tamattu or Hajj al-Kirân.
These pilgrims express their thankfulness towards Allah (exalted is He) for allowing them to perform both the Hajj and the Umrah within the same year. A hadiy is a sacrifice meant as a gift to the Haram.
A hadiy is not wajîb for those who have made an intention to perform the Hajj al-Ifrâd. However, it is also desirable (mustahabb) to do so.
The hadiy comes under the category of Udhiya, which is wajîb within the days of ‘Id al-Adha for all, who are finan- cially able to do so. As the pilgrims are considered visitors, they are obligated to sacrifice a hadiy but not an udhiya.
The animals eligible for hadiy are sheep, goats, camels, and cows. Up to seven pilgrims can share one big animal (camel or cow) as their hadiy.
Whoever misses the prescribed time for sacrifice (i.e. the Ayyâm an-Nahr, first three days of ‘Id al-Adha) must charge a relative, who goes on Hajj the following, year to sacrifice in his name.
The hadiy can be sacrificed anywhere within the Haram area. However, it is more meritorious to sacrifice in Mina.
It is obligatory for pilgrims, who have made an intention to perform the Hajj at-Tamattu and the Hajj al-Kirân, to observe a certain order of Ibâdat. First, they have to stone the devils, then they sacrifice the hadiy and finally shave their hair. Only then may they leave the state of Ihrâm.
The meat of the hadiy may be consumed by everyone, even well-off people and the one who has offered the sac- rifice.
This is not true for penalty sacrifices because they count as a nâzir (fulfilment of an oath). Only the poor and the needy are eligible to benefit from the meat. Well-off peo- ple, the one who has offered the sacrifice and his relatives are excluded therefrom, unless they pay a monetary do- nation equal to the value of the amount of meat they wish to take for themselves.
There are certain people who claim that pilgrims should sacrifice the hadiy in their homelands instead of the Har- am area. This is an inappropriate suggestion. Sacrificing the hadiy in the Haram is wajîb. Additionally, the reward for doing so is incomparably higher.
The decisive factor is Allah’s (exalted is He) command. Every act of worship has some unexpected advantages and subtleties.
No one will be stripped of the rewards he has earned for sacrificing the hadiy. It is not the meat that counts. What is essential is the expression of thankfulness towards Allah (exalted is He).
Every sacrifice animal has to be slaughtered by the pil- grims themselves or their representatives. If the pilgrim does not sacrifice his own, he has to wait for confirmation before shaving his hair.
There is no specific time span for the slaughter of sacrific- es offered as a penalty, but it should take place within the Haram area.
HALK AND TAKSÎR – SHAVING AND CUTTING THE HAIR
Shaving or cutting one’s hair is considered an obligation of the Hajj.
Those who have made an intention to perform the Um- rah, shave or shorten their hair after the Sa‘i and leave the Ihrâm.
The Halk (shaving) and Taksîr (cutting) are done in Mina on the first day of ‘Id al-Adha after the stoning of the de- vil and the sacrifice of the hadiy. Everyone, who does not observe this order, has to slaughter another sacrificial animal.
It is wajîb for men to cut at least one quarter of their hair, but highly recommended to shave it all off. Cutting or shortening less than that requires a penalty sacrifice.
According to the Shafi’i madhab, it suffices to cut three single hairs.
Women just cut their hair by the length of a fingertip. The Halk/Taksîr marks the end of the Ihrâm and its prohi- bitions. N.B.: Intimate relations between spouses are only permissible again after the Tawâf of Visiting.
The shaving of facial hair does not count as Halk. It is not allowed to shave the beard or trim the moustache before the Halk.
If someone is bald, he still has to (softly) run a razor blade or an electric shaver over his head. Omitting the Halk re- quires the slaughter of an animal.
It is permissible for those, who have already sacrificed the hadiy, to shave.
THE STATE OF IHRÂM
Even before reaching Mecca, the pilgrim enters into the state of ihrâm.
Outwardly, this is done by putting on a garment consisting of two pieces of white cloth worn above (izâr) and below (ridâ) the waist. Women wear their usual clothes; howev- er, the colour, white, is also recommended for them.
From the moment he has entered into Ihrâm, the pilgrim has to abstain from certain acts and behaviours, that are usually allowed, and every kind of sin.
Someone, who has entered the sacred state of Ihrâm is called a muhrim.
Entering into Ihrâm is a very crucial step. The believers rid themselves of every worldly adornment. Their white clothes resemble the garments of the crowds gathering on the Day of Judgment.
The state of Ihrâm has two pillars (arkân): The intention (niyya) and the Talbiyya. The niyya, or declaration of in- tent, precedes the Ihrâm.
After the pilgrim has made his intention for the Hajj, he recites the Talbiyya. This should be done in either a loud voice (men) or in a low or soft and gentle voice (women).
Labbayk allâhumma labbayk. Labbayka lâ scharîka laka labbayk. Innalhamda, wannimata, laka walmulk. Lâ scharîka lak.
This means: Here I am, O Allah! Here I am! Here I am, You have no partner, here I am! Surely, all praise, blessings, and dominion are for You. You have no partner!
After one has repeated the Talibiyyah three times, it is Sunnah to recite the Takbîr (Allâhu akbar), the Tahlîl (lâ ilâha illallâh), to invoke Salawât upon the Prophet (Allâhu- ma salli alâ sayyidinâ Muhammad), and to supplicate to Allah (exalted is He).
The muhrim chants these words at any occasion during his pilgrimage until the symbolic stoning of the Devil on 10th Zulhijjah. After that, the Talbiyyah is no longer re- cited.
The Prophet (PBUH) said:
“There is no other day on which Allah, all Praises are for Him, saves more of His servants from the Hellfire than the Day of Arafat. When His servants assemble on Mount Arafat, their hair unkempt and covered with dust, reciting “Labbayk…”, He shows them to the angels: “What do they want?” (Muslim, Hajj 436).
WAJÎB-CONDITIONS OF THE IHRÂM
It is obligatory for every pilgrim to put on the Ihrâm within the Mîqât area and to carefully observe its prohibitions.
THE MÎQÂT POINTS
The Mîqât covers the area between Zulhulayfa in the north, Yalamlam in the south, Juhfa in the west and Zât al-Irk in the east.
Those traveling overland are not allowed to cross these points without putting on the Ihrâm. Flight passengers with the destination of Jeddah have to enter into Ihrâm when crossing the line perpendicular to the Mîqât points.
Being in a state of Ihrâm is obligatory for everyone who enters the Masjîd al-Harâm. Therefore, visitors or people who do business in Mecca, have to put on the Ihrâm, even if they have no plans to perform the Hajj or the Umrah.
If the inhabitants of the so-called Hill-area (the area be- tween Mecca and the Mîqât-points) want to perform the Hajj or the Umrah, they do not have to get to the Mîqât
points first, but enter into Ihrâm right where they live.
CROSSING THE MÎQÂT-POINTS WITHOUT ENTERING INTO IHRÂM
Anyone, who has made the intention to perform the Hajj or the Umrah and crosses the Mîqât-points without enter- ing into Ihrâm, has to return to one of the border towns and make up for it.
If this is impossible, the pilgrim has to sacrifice an animal (Kaffara) in atonement.
Those traveling from Jeddah to Medina first do not have to enter into Ihrâm yet. This is done later, when passing through Zulhulayfa.
THE SUNNAHS OF IHRÂM
It is part of the Sunnahs of Ihrâm to take a ritual bath (ghusl) after having entered the Mîqât area. The ritual bath is preceded by cutting the toe- and fingernails and the shaving of the armpits and pubic hair. Following the ghusl, one perfumes oneself and puts on the two Ihrâm garments. They should be comfortable to wear but also big enough to cover one’s Awrah. Although there are no particular regulations concerning their colour, it is desira- ble (mustahabb) for them to be white.
Women are allowed to wear their usual clothes. They may be of white colour as well, provided that the skin does not become visible (through translucence).
Crossing the Mîqât-points without entering into Ihrâm Anyone, who has made the intention to perform the Hajj or the Umrah and crosses the Mîqât-points without en- tering into Ihrâm, has to return to one of the border towns and make up for it. If this is impossible, the pilgrim has to sacrifice an animal (Kaffara) in atonement.
Those traveling from Jeddah to Medina first do not have to enter into Ihrâm yet. This is done later, when passing through Zulhulayfa.
Karn al Manâzil
Taif Yalamlam While putting on the Ihrâm, one recites the Talbiyya three times audibly. Then, one prays two Rak‘at, provided that the Karahat time has not begun, during which the prayer is forbidden.
RECITING THE TALBIYYAH AT ANY OCCASION
Summary: The one who wishes to don the Ihrâm, cleans his body and takes a ritual bath as soon as he enters the Mîqât area. If this is not possible, he just takes ablution (wudû). He changes his normal clothing to the Ihrâm garments and makes the intention to enter into the sacred state. He then recites the Talbiyyah three times and offers a prayer of two Rak’at. After that, he is in the sacred state and tries to observe its prohibitions until he leaves the Ihrâm again.
The prohibitions of Ihrâm
Violating the prohibitions of Ihrâm considerably reduces the rewards of the Hajj. Therefore, a prospective pilgrim should know about them.
1) Crossing the Mîqât-points without entering into Ihrâm If one has done so, it is compulsory to return to one of the border towns and make up for it. Those, who do not return or are prevented from returning, have to sacrifice an animal in atonement.
2) Prohibition of intercourse Indulging in sexual intercourse before the end of the Waqfa on Arafat on 9th Zulhijjah renders the Hajj invalid. The penalty for intercourse before the symbolic stoning
of the devil is the sacrifice of a camel. Intimate relations after the symbolic stoning but before shaving the head, require the sacrifice of a sheep.
3) Leaving Ihrâm prematurely The state of Ihrâm cannot be left before the stoning of the devil and the slaughter of an animal. Everyone, who leaves Ihrâm prematurely by shaving his head before the stoning and the sacrifice, has to sacrifice a sheep in atone- ment.
4) Using perfume The muhrim is not allowed to use perfume or any other liquid or solid sorts of fragrance on his body or his Ihrâm garments. Dying the hair is also forbidden. Any violations require either a monetary donation or the sacrifice of a sheep, depending on the amount of perfume used. This ruling also applies to fragrant soap, ointments, and medicines.
5) Cutting the toe- and fingernails If a muhrim trims or cuts all of his nails, he has to sacrifice a sheep. Cutting only one or a few nail (s) just requires a monetary donation.
6) Wearing sewn garments or shoes A (male) muhrim, who wears sewn garments for one day and one night in succession, is obligated to sacrifice a sheep or a goat. A monetary donation is due for those, who have either violated this ruling within a shorter time span, or who were forced to wear sewn clothes or shoes.
However, it is allowed to wear a cloth or a jacket thrown over one’s shoulders, as long as one does not put on its sleeves.
The male muhrim is also forbidden to cover his head in any way. If he wears a head covering or turban for longer than one day or one night, he must sacrifice an animal. For shorter time spans, a monetary donation is due.
7) Hunting Hunting or killing a terrestrial animal is forbidden, no mat- ter if this is done deliberately, unknowingly or uninten- tionally. Everyone, who assisted in the killing of an animal, must pay its full price and has to sacrifice a sheep or a goat as a penalty.
8) Uprooting plants or trees within the Harâm area The felling of trees or uprooting of plants requires a mon- etary donation equal to their value and the sacrifice of a sheep and a goat, respectively. The meat is then distribut- ed among the needy.
This prohibition does not apply to any dead plants or trees. Their uprooting requires no compensation.
9) Disputing while being in the state of Ihrâm Any form of verbal let alone physical violence is harâm. Violating this prohibition requires a monetary donation.
PERMISSIBLE DEEDS IN THE STATE OF IHRÂM
A muhrim is allowed to use odourless soap, shampoo and ointments without any restriction. He is allowed to brush his teeth with toothpaste or a miswâk, to wash his clothes, to wear (sewn) purses or belts, to use an umbrella as a protection from the sun, and to wear rings. It is also per- missible to stay indoors or to rest in the shade of a tree. The muhrim should wear shoes that do not cover his toes, heels, and arches.
The Ihrâm of women are their usual clothes. However, it is desirable that these are white provided that the skin does not become visible.
Summary: After entering into Ihrâm, the pilgrim is forbidden to cut his nails, to use perfume, to shave his body hair, and to indulge in sexual intercourse. Likewise, he must avoid an- ything that may lead to intercourse. He should also avoid verbal and/or physical dispute and insult.
The one who observes these prohibitions resembles the angels. Being in a state of Ihrâm prevents the pilgrim from committing any sins or evil deeds.
The Sa’i is the ritual of walking back and forth between the hills of as-Safâ and al-Marwa. According to the Hanafi school, the Sa’i is obligatory (wajîb) during the Hajj and the Umrah. The Sa’i comprises of seven ashwat, four times from as-Safâ to al-Marwa and three times in the opposite direction.
The Sa’i is performed at the “mesâ”.
The starting point of the Sa‘i is as-Safâ. This is necessary to complete seven circuits.
Within a section marked by two green lanterns, men per- form the “Harwala”, a fast, upright walk.
The Harwala is done in remembrance of Hajar’s (r) des- perate search for water, after she and Ismaîl (a) had been left behind by Ibrâhîm (a). According to the story, she walked back and forth between the two hills, quickening her steps in the Harwala section, because she could not see her son from there.
It is not necessary for women to perform the Harwala dur- ing the Sa‘i.
The Sa’i is not an independent act of worship, therefore it cannot be repeated. It is performed only after the Um- rah -Tawâf and the Tawâf of Visiting.
THE OBLIGATIONS (WAJIBÂT) OF THE SA’I
1) The Sa’i is usually performed on foot. Similar to the ruling on the Tawâf, the sick and the elderly can be pushed in a wheel-chair by a travelling companion.
2) The Sa’i is performed after the Tawâf.
3) A complete Sa’i comprises of seven circuits.
According to the Hanafi school, it is imperative to perform at least four circuits. A monetary donation is due for every missing Shawt, and they must be completed. If a pilgrim performs less than four ashwat and does not make up for them, he has to slaughter an animal in atonement. Ac- cording to the Shafi’i school, the seven circuits are a pillar of the Sa’i. Thus, the Sa’i is only complete after a total of seven ashwat.
THE SUNNAHS OF THE SA’I
1) One has to take ablution before performing the Sa’i, but it is not forbidden for menstruating women to perform it.
2) The Sa’i should be performed immediately after the Tawâf prayer.
3) Before beginning the Sa’i, one greets the Black Stone from the top of as-Safâ.
4) At the end of each shawt, one should climb as-Safâ and al-Marwa sufficiently high for the Kaaba to come into sight.
5) While standing on the hilltop, one should turn the face towards the Kaaba, recite the Takbîr and supplicate to Al- lah (exalted is He).
6) Men perform the Harwala on the marked distance; oth- erwise they keep a normal pace.
7) One should make Du’a during the Sa’i.
8) The circuits should be performed in a row without in-
HOW TO PERFORM THE SA’I
After the Tawâf prayer, one greets the Black Stone, and than mounts as-Safâ. On top of the hill, one makes the intention to perform the Sa’i of the Hajj and the Umrah, respectively. This is done by saying: “O Allah, to receive your good pleasure, I will perform the sev- en Ashwat of the Sa’i of the Hajj (the Umrah). Make it easy for me and accept it from me.”
Then, one turns to the Kaaba, recites the Takbîr, Tahlîl, and Salawât for the Prophet (PBUH), and starts walking towards al-Marwa. During the Harwala, one recites the following supplication:
Upon reaching al-Marwa, one climbs the hill again until the Kaaba comes into sight. One recites the Takbîr, Tahlîl and Salawât for the Prophet (PBUH) and makes Du’a.
The following six ashwat are performed likewise.
The Sa’i during Hajj or Umrah is performed only once. The Sa‘i of the Umrah is performed after the Umrah, and that of the Hajj after the Hajj. It is recommended for pilgrims from outside the Mîqât area to perform the Sa’i after the Tawâf of Visiting.
THE SPIRITUAL MEANING OF THE SA’I
The Sa’i is an important act of worship that contains a deep spiritual wisdom. The Sa’i epitomizes the believer’s hope for Allah’s (exalted is He) mercy, His compassion, and divine appreciation. The believer seeks the hidden essence of his belief, like Hajar sought for water. It is a symbol for the epic fight against hopelessness and stand- still. By striving as much as we can, we will make our inner spring of spirituality gush forth, after having been lying hidden in the desert of our souls.
Imam Al-Ghazâlî summarized the deeper meaning of the Sa’i as follows:
“The servant performing the Sa’i is like one who wants to show the purity and sincerity of his belief to his Lord, asking for His mercy and compassion. He is like the one, who goes in and out of the Sultan’s garden again and again. And when he is not for- given the first time, he hopes for forgiveness the second time.”